Title20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1, enhances the production of hyaluronic acid through the activation of ERK and Akt mediated by Src tyrosin kinase in human keratinocytes.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsLim, T-G, Jeon, AJi, Yoon, JHye, Song, D, Kim, J-E, Kwon, JYeon, Kim, JRhan, Kang, NJoo, Park, J-S, Yeom, MHun, Oh, D-K, Lim, Y, Lee, CC, Lee, CYong, Lee, KWon
JournalInt J Mol Med
Date Published2015 May
KeywordsCells, Cultured, Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases, Ginsenosides, Humans, Hyaluronic Acid, Keratinocytes, Phosphorylation, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Sapogenins, src-Family Kinases

The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms through which 20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (20GPPD) promotes the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) in human keratinocytes. 20GPPD is the primary bioactive metabolite of Rb1, a major ginsenoside found in ginseng (Panax ginseng). We sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the 20GPPD-induced production of HA. We found that 20GPPD induced an increase in HA production by elevating hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) expression in human keratinocytes. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt was also enhanced by 20GPPD in a dose-dependent manner. The pharmacological inhibition of ERK (using U0126) or Akt (using LY294002) suppressed the 20GPPD-induced expression of HAS2, whereas treatment with an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor (AG1478) or an intracellular Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA/AM) did not exert any observable effects. The increased Src phosphorylation was also confirmed following treatment with 20GPPD in the human keratinocytes. Following pre-treatment with the Src inhibitor, PP2, both HA production and HAS2 expression were attenuated. Furthermore, the 20GPPD-enhanced ERK and Akt signaling decreased following treatment with PP2. Taken together, our results suggest that Src kinase plays a critical role in the 20GPPD-induced production of HA by acting as an upstream modulator of ERK and Akt activity in human keratinocytes.

Alternate JournalInt. J. Mol. Med.
PubMed ID25738334